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Super comprehensive yarn classification, textile people, do you know it?

Xinming January 31, 2024 13 Visit

Yarn is a textile processed from various textile fibers into a certain fineness. It is used for weaving, rope making, thread making, knitting and embroidery, etc. It is divided into short fiber yarn, continuous filament, etc.

The fineness of yarn can be expressed in many ways, such as number, metric count, imperial count, denier, etc. (see count). The twist of a yarn is expressed as the number of twists per meter or per inch. So what are the classification methods of yarn, let us find out together!

(1) Yarns are divided according to spinning technology

Combed yarn: yarn spun through combing process. Compared with carded yarn, it uses better materials, the fibers in the yarn are straight and parallel, the yarn quality is excellent, and the yarn fineness is finer.

Carded yarn: yarn spun through general spinning process. Also called carded yarn, cotton spinning and wool spinning are slightly different.

(2) According to the fiber length of the yarn

Filament yarn: a yarn formed by combining, twisting or deforming one or more continuous filaments.

Short fiber yarn: Short fiber is twisted and spun into yarn with a certain fineness, which can be divided into three types.

① Cotton yarn: yarn made from pure or blended raw cotton or cotton fibers on cotton spinning equipment.

② Medium-long fiber yarn: yarn processed from medium-long fibers on cotton spinning or special equipment.

③ Wool type yarn: yarn made from wool fiber or wool type fiber pure or blended on wool spinning equipment.

Filament and short fiber combination yarn: yarn spun from short fiber and filament using special methods, such as core-spun yarn, wrapped yarn, etc.

(3) According to the types of fibers that make up the yarn

Pure spun yarn: Yarn spun from one type of fiber is called pure spun yarn. When naming, use the word "pure" and the name of the fiber, such as pure polyester yarn, pure cotton yarn, etc.

Blended yarn: Yarn spun from a mixture of two or more fibers. The naming rules for blended yarns are: when the raw material blending ratios are different, the one with the larger ratio comes first; when the ratios are the same, they are arranged in the order of natural fibers, synthetic fibers, and regenerated fibers. When writing, write the raw material ratio and fiber type together, and separate the raw materials and ratios with a semicolon "/". Such as polyester/cotton (65/35) yarn, wool/nitrile (50/50) yarn, polyester/viscose (50/50) yarn, etc.

Twisted yarn: a yarn made by twisting two or more different fibers or single yarns of different colors.

Mixed fiber yarn: a yarn made by combining two kinds of filaments to improve certain aspects of performance.

(4) Yarns are classified according to dyeing and finishing processing

Original color yarn: yarn that maintains the original color of the fiber without any dyeing or finishing processing.

Bleached yarn: yarn that has been bleached and has a whiter color. Usually refers to cotton yarn and linen yarn.

Dyed yarn: yarn that has been dyed and processed into various colors.

Colored yarn: yarn spun from colored fibers.

Singed yarn: yarn that has been processed by singeing and has a smooth surface.

Mercerized yarn: mercerized yarn, including mercerized cotton yarn and mercerized wool yarn. Mercerized cotton yarn is a yarn that is treated in a certain concentration of alkali solution to give the yarn a silky luster and higher strength; mercerized wool yarn is to remove the scales of the fibers in the wool yarn, making the yarn soft and less irritating to the skin.

(5) Yarns are classified according to yarn linear density

Cotton yarn is subdivided according to thickness into thick special (number) yarn, medium special (number) yarn, fine special (number) yarn and extra fine special (number) yarn.

Coarse yarn: refers to yarn with a linear density of 32 tex or above.

Medium special yarn: refers to yarn with a linear density of 31 tex~21 tex.

Fine special yarn: refers to yarn with a linear density of 11 tex to 20 tex or above.

Extra fine yarn: refers to yarn with a linear density of 10 tex and below.

(6) According to the structure and shape of yarn

The so-called "yarn" is actually the collective name of "yarn" and "thread". It is generally defined as: yarn is a continuous linear object made of various textile fibers as raw materials. It is thin, soft and has adaptability. Essential properties required for textile processing and final product use. In textiles, "yarn" and "thread" are often defined separately, that is, "yarn" is composed of many short fibers or filaments arranged in a state similar to rows, and rotated and twisted along the axis to form a composition with a certain strength and Products with linear density, while products made of two or more single yarns twisted together are called threads or strands.

Yarn can be divided into different types according to different classification basis.

According to the structure and shape of yarn, it can be roughly divided into 10 types of yarn.

Monofilament: refers to a continuous single filament of very long length.

Multifilament: refers to a bundle of two or more monofilaments joined together.

Twisted yarn: Yarn formed by twisting multifilament yarn.

Composite twisted silk: The twisted silk is combined and twisted one or more times to form a composite twisted silk.

Textured yarn: Chemical fiber raw yarn is deformed to have appearance characteristics such as curl, spiral, and loop. The purpose of processing is to increase bulk, stretch and elasticity. According to performance characteristics, there are usually three types: elastic yarn, bulked yarn and network yarn.

Single yarn: a single continuous strip formed by spinning short fibers.

Strand: Two or more single yarns are combined and twisted. If it is formed by merging two single yarns, it is called a double-stranded yarn, and if it is formed by three or more single yarns, it is called a multi-stranded yarn. The strands are then combined and twisted to become double-twisted strands.

Fancy thread: yarn made with special technology and with special appearance and color, including fancy thread and decorative thread. It is formed by twisting core yarn, decorative yarn and fixed yarn on a fancy twisting machine. The surface has special appearance shapes or colors such as fiber knots, slubs, loops, braids, spirals, waves, etc.

Bulked yarn: Bulked yarn is a plump yarn with high softness that is processed by the heat shrinkage (thermoplasticity) of proline fiber. The aliphatic fibers with low shrinkage performance and high shrinkage performance are mixed in a certain ratio to make yarn, and then relaxed and heat-set. In this way, the high-shrinkage fiber shrinks greatly and forms a yarn core, while the low-shrinkage fiber shrinks slightly and is extruded on the surface to form an arc, thereby producing fluffy yarn.

Core-spun yarn: a yarn made of filament or short fiber yarn as the core and wrapped with other fibers or yarns.